HTML LINKS

A link or hyperlink is a connection from one web resource to another. Links allow users to move seamlessly from one page to another, on any server anywhere in the world.

A link has two ends, called anchors. The link starts at the source anchor and points to the destination anchor, which may be any web resource, for example, an image, an audio or video clip, a PDF file, an HTML document or an element within the document itself, and so on.

By default, links will appear as follow in most of the browsers:

  • An unvisited link is underlined and blue.
  • A visited link is underlined and purple.
  • An active link is underlined and red.

HTML Link Syntax

Links are specified in HTML using the <a> tag.

A link or hyperlink could be a word, group of words, or image.

<a href="url">LINK TEXT</a>
RESULT

Anything between the opening <a> tag and the closing </a> tag becomes the part of the link that the user sees and clicks in a browser. Here are some examples of the links:

<a href="https://www.google.com/">GOOGLE SEARCH</a>
<a href="https://www.afriportalnetwork.com/">AFRIPORTAL’S WEBSITE</a>
<a href="https://www.afriportalnetwork.com/">
    <img src="kite.jpg" alt="kites">
</a>
RESULT

The href attribute specifies the target of the link. Its value can be an absolute or relative URL.

An absolute URL is the URL that includes every part of the URL format, such as protocol, host name, and path of the document, e.g., https://www.google.com/https://www.example.com/form.php, etc. While, relative URLs are page-relative paths, e.g., contact.htmlimages/smiley.png, and so on. A relative URL never includes the http:// or https:// prefix.


Setting the Targets for Links

The target attribute tells the browser where to open the linked document. There are four defined targets, and each target name starts with an underscore(_) character:

  • _blank — Opens the linked document in a new window or tab.
  • _parent — Opens the linked document in the parent window.
  • _self — Opens the linked document in the same window or tab as the source document. This is the default, hence it is not necessary to explicitly specify this value.
  • _top — Opens the linked document in the full browser window.

Try out the following example to understand how the link’s target basically works:

<a href="/about-us.php" target="_top">ABOUT US</a>
<a href="https://www.google.com/" target="_blank">GOOGLE</a>
<a href="images/boat.jpg" target="_parent">
    <img src="cloudy-sky.jpg" alt="CLOUDY SKY">
</a>
RESULT

Creating Bookmark Anchors

You can also create bookmark anchors to allow users to jump to a specific section of a web page. Bookmarks are especially helpful if you have a very long web page.

Creating bookmarks is a two-step process: first add the id attribute on the element where you want to jump, then use that id attribute value preceded by the hash sign (#) as the value of the href attribute of the <a> tag, as shown in the following example:

<a href="#sectiona">JUMP TO SECTION A</a>
<h2 id="sectiona">SECTION A</h2>
<p>LOREM IPSUM DOLOR SIT AMET, CONSECTETUR ADIPISCING ELIT...</p>
RESULT

Creating Download Links

You can also create the file download link in exactly the same fashion as placing text links. Just point the destination URL to the file you want to be available for download.

In the following example we’ve created the download links for ZIP, PDF and JPG files.

<a href="downloads/file.zip">DOWNLOAD ZIP FILE</a>
<a href="downloads/file.pdf">DOWNLOAD PDF FILE</a>
<a href="downloads/file.jpg">DOWNLOAD IMAGE FILE</a>
RESULT